OSHA's Directorate of Science, Technology and Medicine wishes to acknowledge the assistance provided by the following organizations: Department of Veterans Administration (VA), California Emergency Medical Services Authority (EMSA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), INOVA Health System, Northern Virginia Hospital Alliance, Kaiser Permanente, U. Seven hospitals provided extensive information, hospital tours, equipment demonstrations, interviews, photographs, and reference material for this project: These hospitals were identified by hospital organizations as having given notable consideration to the possibility of receiving contaminated victims from a mass casualty incident involving hazardous substance release.
OSHA's Directorate of Enforcement Programs (DEP), and the Directorate of Standards and Guidance (DSG), as well as the Office of the Solicitor, OSH Division (SOL) also made notable contributions.
Considering the high ambient aerosol concentrations, regional lung deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated to assess extent of exposure.
Lung deposition was computed in terms of mass concentration and the associated surface area for 12 male traffic wardens using the latest version of the stochastic lung deposition code Inhalation, Deposition, and Exhalation of Aerosols in the Lung.
Renate Winker-Heil for her support in modifying and using the IDEAL code for calculations in its latest version.
This work was funded in part by EU contract no.516483 (Alpha Risk) and by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan under the scholarship program (Overseas Scholarships for Pakistani Nationals).
A previously developed dosimetry model of inhaled Ni compounds in the human lung has been expanded by incorporating three additional factors: (1) inhalability, (2) mixed breathing mode, and (3) clearance rate coefficient of a Ni compounds' mixture.
The exposure concentration can refer to total particulate matter (PM) concentration or chemically resolved particles of variant size distributions.
The aerosol size parameters can be introduced to the model either directly as median aerodynamic diameter and geometric standard deviation or are estimated by the model from measurement data.
The Ex Do M is a model for calculating the human exposure and the deposition, dose, clearance, and finally retention of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract at specific times during and after exposure, under variable exposure conditions.