The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria into Zollverein (the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity.In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics.
The first German railway, the Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835.
It is the second-largest city in Bavaria (after Munich), and the largest in Franconia (German: From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes.
King Conrad III established a burgraviate, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab but, with the extinction of their male line around 1190, the burgraviate was inherited by the last count's son-in-law, of the House of Hohenzollern.
The Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years.
In 1349, Nuremberg's Jews were subjected to a pogrom.
The largest gains for Nuremberg were in the 14th century; including Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, making Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire.